Category Archives: USA

Researchers state a breathalyzer has flaws, casting doubt on countless DUI convictions

The source code behind a police breathalyzer widely used in multiple states — and millions of drunk driving arrests — is under the spotlight.

It’s a recent case of technology and the real world colliding — one that revolves around source code, calibration of equipment, two researchers and legal maneuvering, state law enforcement agencies, and Draeger, the breathalyzer’s manufacturer.

This most recent skirmish began a decade ago when Washington state police sought to replace its aging fleet of breathalyzers. When the Washington police opened solicitations, the only bidder, Draeger, a German medical technology maker, won the contract to sell its flagship device, the Alcotest 9510, across Washington state.

But defense attorneys have long believed the breathalyzer is faulty.

Jason Lantz, a Washington-based defense lawyer, enlisted a software engineer and a security researcher to examine its source code. The two experts outlined in a preliminary report that they found flaws capable of producing incorrect breath test results. The defense hailed the results as a breakthrough, believing the findings could cast doubt on countless drunk-driving prosecutions.

The two distributed their early findings to attendees at a conference for defense lawyers, which Draeger said was in violation of a court-signed protective order the experts had agreed to, and the company threatened to sue.

Their research was left unfinished, and a final report was never finished.

Draeger said in a statement the company was protecting its source code and intellectual property, not muzzling research.

“Pursuant to a protective order, Draeger provided the source code to both of the defense experts in Snohomish County,” said Marion Varec, a spokesperson for Draeger. “That source code is highly proprietary and it was important to Draeger that the protective order limit its use to the purposes of the litigation at issue.” Draeger says it believes that one of the experts entrusted to examine the source code was using it in violation of the protective order, so Draeger sent the expert a cease and desist letter. Draeger says it “worked with the expert to resolve the issue.”

Of the law firms we spoke to that were at the conference and received the report, none knew of Draeger’s threat to launch legal action. A person with a copy of the report allowed ZDNet to read it.

The breathalyzer has become a staple piece of equipment in law enforcement, with more than a million Americans arrested each year for driving under the influence of alcohol — an offense known as a DUI. Drunk driving has its own economy: A multi-billion dollar business for lawyers, state governments, and the breathalyzer manufacturers — all of which have a commercial stake at work.

Yet, the case in Washington is only the latest in several legal battles where the breathalyzer has faced scrutiny about the technology used to secure convictions.

TRIAL BY MACHINE

When one Washington state driver accused of drunk-driving in 2015 disputed the reading, his defense counsel petitioned the court to obtain the device’s source code from Draeger.

Lantz, who was leading the legal effort to review the Alcotest 9510 in the state, hired two software engineers, Falcon Momot, a security consultant, and Robert Walker, a software engineer and decade-long Microsoft veteran, who were tasked with examining the code. The code was obtained under a court-signed protective order, putting strict controls on Momot and Walker to protect the source code, though the order permitted the researchers to report their findings, with some limitations. Although the researchers were not given a device, the researchers were given a binary file containing the state’s configuration set by Washington State Patrol.

Although their findings had yet to be verified against one of the breathalyzers, their preliminary report outlined several issues in the code that they said could impact the outcome of an alcohol breath test.

In order to produce a result, the Alcotest 9510 uses two sensors to measure alcohol content in a breath sample: An infrared beam that measures how much light goes through the breath, and a fuel cell that measures the electrical current of the sample. The results should be about the same and within a small margin of error — usually within a thousandth of a decimal point. If the results are too far apart, the test will be rejected.

But the report said that under some conditions the breathalyzer can return an inflated reading — a result that could also push a person over the legal limit

One attorney, who read the report, said they believed the report showed the breathalyzer “tipped the scales” in favor of prosecutors, and against drivers.

One section in the report raised issue with a lack of adjustment of a person’s breath temperature.

Breath temperature can fluctuate throughout the day in an individual, but, according to the report, can also wildly change the results of an alcohol breath test. Without correction, a single digit over a normal breath temperature of 34 degrees centigrade can inflate the results by six percent — enough to push a person over the limit.

The quadratic formula set by the Washington State Patrol should correct the breath temperature to prevent false results. The quadratic formula corrects warmer breath downward, said the report, but the code doesn’t explain how the corrections are made. The corrections “may be insufficient” if the formula is faulty, the report added.

Issues with the code notwithstanding, Washington elected not to install a component to measure breath temperature, according to testimony in a 2015 hearing, and later confirmed by Draeger.

Kyle Moore, a spokesperson for Washington State Patrol said the police department “tested and approved the instrument that best fit our business needs,” and believes the device can produce accurate results without the need for the breath temperature sensor.

The code is also meant to check to ensure the device is operating within a certain temperature range set by Draeger, because the device can produce incorrect results if it’s too hot or too cold.

But the report said a check meant to measure the ambient temperature was disabled in the state configuration.

“The unit could record a result even when outside of its operational requirements,” said the report. If the breathalyzer was too warm, the printed-out results would give no indication the test may be invalid, the report said.

Draeger disputed this finding. A spokesperson said the Washington devices check their temperature, the check is enabled, and that the devices will not produce a reading while the device is outside its operational temperature range.

When asked, a Washington State Patrol spokesperson would not say if the breathalyzer was configured to allow breath tests outside its operational temperature range, saying only that the device “has been tested and validated in various ambient temperatures.”

The report also scrutinized the other sensor — the fuel cell — used to measure a person’s alcohol levels. Any fuel cell will degrade over time — more so when the breathalyzer is used often. This decay can alter the accuracy of test results. The code is meant to adjust the results to balance out the fuel cell’s decline, but the report said the correction is flawed. Breathalyzers should be re-calibrated at least every year, but the state’s configuration limits those adjustments only to the first six months, the report added.

“We also note that the calibration age does not account for the use frequency of conditions; a unit that has been used hundreds of times in a day would have the same correction as one used only once or twice in a number of months,” the report said.

Concluding the nine-page report, the researchers say they are “skeptical” that the Alcotest 9510 can & does produce a reliable measurement of breath alcohol.

“Although the apparatus states its output in very absolute terms, we recommend interpreting the results with extreme caution,” the report said.

LEGAL BATTLES

Although Momot and Walker’s code review was limited to devices in Washington, similar concerns roped in other states into protracted legal battles, forcing prosecutors to defend not only the breathalyzer but also how it’s configured.

But the line between Draeger’s source code and each state’s configuration is blurry, making it difficult to know who is responsible for incorrect results.

Draeger said in an email that the “calibration and adjustment procedures depend on the instrument, additional equipment and materials, and the persons performing these procedures.” When asked about the guardrails put in place to prevent calibration errors, the company said, “only trained and certified personnel perform these special instrument certification procedures.”

A Draeger Alcotest 9510 device, with a reading in Dutch.

Washington State Patrol said the device produces accurate results, even without certain sensors fitted.

Draeger’s breathalyzer is widely used across the US, including in California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. It’s often the only breathalyzer used in the states where they were bought.

In both New Jersey and Massachusetts, defense lawyers raised concerns. By acquiring the devices used by the states, lawyers commissioned engineers to analyze the code who say they found flaws that they say could surely produce incorrect results.

But defense teams in both states largely failed to stop their state governments from using the devices, public records reveal.

New Jersey’s top court found in 2008 that a similar Alcotest breathalyzer — said to use the same underlying algorithms as the Alcotest 9510 — was “generally scientifically reliable” and can be used with a few configuration changes. One such change was to adjust the breathalyzer’s results for women over age 60 — who often aren’t able to produce the minimum breath volume of 1.5 liters required for a test. But defense lawyers argued that these changes were never put into place.

The same court ruled five years later that the breathalyzer “remains scientifically reliable, and generates results that are admissible” in court.

In nearby Massachusetts, a scandal that blew up in 2017 involving alleged failings in the breathalyzer threw thousands of prosecutions into disarray, because “all but two of the 392 machines” examined in the state had not been properly calibrated.

A district judge ruled that breath test results from miscalibrated devices for two years prior to September 2014 were “presumptively unreliable,” said Joe Bernard, a defense attorney who led the case against the Alcotest 9510 in Massachusetts.

Bernard, and his colleague Tom Workman, a computer forensic expert who later trained as a lawyer and consulted on the case, obtained the state’s source code and produced a report.

In a phone call, Workman criticized the Draeger breathalyzer, arguing that it can produce widely inflated outcomes. One section of his report claimed the device had a litany of programming errors, including code that — like in Washington — apparently fails to correct for fuel cell fatigue.

But the court rejected the findings and found the source code still produced sound scientific results.

“THROW CAUTION TO THE WIND”

While legal battles were continuing, Washington waited to push ahead with its deployment, but the ruling in New Jersey case in 2008 was seen as a vote of confidence.

Almost a year later, Washington State Patrol’s toxicologist said in an email seen by ZDNet that the police department should “throw caution to the wind” to deploy the device to police officers across the state without commissioning an independent source code evaluation — though she recommended confirming with the chief of police.

When asked whether an independent evaluation was ever commissioned, a Washington State Patrol spokesperson would not comment further and referred back to the legal filings in the case.

A later email in 2015 confirmed that the Washington State Patrol “never commissioned” an independent assessment.

Moses Garcia, a former Washington state prosecutor who now works for a non-profit providing local governments in the state with legal advice, said in an email that the earlier breathalyzer in the New Jersey case had already been deemed admissible, and that the newer Alcotest 9510 uses the “same basic algorithms and formulas” as its predecessor.

The former prosecutor criticized the defense’s discovery effort as “speculation.”

“In adopting and approving the [Alcotest 9510], the Washington breath alcohol program exceeds, by far, the scientific standards accepted in the scientific community for breath test instrument validation,” he said.

Five years after the contract was signed, Washington State Patrol began deploying hundreds of Draeger breathalyzers in 2014 — sparking interest from defense attorneys in the state.

Not long after, defense attorneys in the state sought access to the devices.

Lantz was granted access to the source code used for Momot and Walker’s code review by a local county court. In one of several recent phone calls with ZDNet, he recounted how he set out to see if there were problems with the state’s device.

“We thought we would find something but nothing like this,” he said.

SETTLEMENTS AND SETBACKS

Hundreds of DUI lawyers descended on Las Vegas in mid-2017 for their annual gathering.

At the event, the two researchers shared their findings, which claimed the Alcotest 9510 having a “defective design.”

Word spread quickly. Draeger sent the researchers a cease and desist letter claiming defamation and alleging the two violated a protective order, designed to protect the source code from leaking.

Draeger and the researchers settled before a case was filed in court, avoiding any protracted legal battle. A court case disputing the fine print of the order could have taken years to resolve.

Draeger said it “remains prepared to provide the source code for use in other litigation in Washington, so long as a proper protective order is in place.”

Beyond a tweet by Walker pointing to a settlement statement on his site, there was little to indicate there had been any legal action against the pair.

The statement said that the two experts “never intended to violate the protective order” and denied any wrongdoing. But the two sides “agree” the draft report was based on incomplete data and not finished — and that “no one in possession of the report should rely on it for any purpose.”

We reached out to Walker with questions, but he referred only to the settlement statement on his company’s website, and he refused to comment any further.

Draeger would not say why the settlement did not include a retraction on the report’s findings.

“There has not been an evidentiary hearing in Washington. If and when there is one, Draeger will cooperate fully,” a spokesperson said.

But Lantz outlines a different scenario. The defense attorney said he believes there “really was no technical violation of the protective order,” because the report didn’t disclose any source code.

“I do believe that [Draeger] is trying to interpret the protective order to be something that it’s not,” he said. “If we could go back in time, I would’ve asked that the report was not handed out — just because of the optics of it.”

Lantz said the protective order is vague, but contends it was framed to prevent the researchers from using the source code or their findings for commercial gain — effectively preventing Momot and Walker from using their knowledge to build their own competing devices. He believes the order gives Draeger near complete control over the code and anything that the company deems “protected” information.

That’s when Draeger “began developing a strategy on how to block” the researchers’ report, said Lantz, because the company didn’t want the “pervasive exposure of these flaws.”

“I believe that interest of Draeger’s to protect their bottom line overlaps with the state’s interest to keep juries from hearing this information about the problems,” he said.

Draeger maintained that it is protecting its intellectual property. The company said in response that it “takes very seriously the proprietary nature of its source code,” and “protects proprietary information as a sound business practice,” which can include various types of communications or agreements for any particular issue.

Momot and Walker are not any more involved with the case, but Sam Felton, a Washington-based software engineer, is set to conduct another review of the Alcotest 9510 code. When contacted, Felton would not speak in specifics about his findings to date, citing his own protective order, except that he found things in the code that caused him “to have some grave concerns.”

And Lantz, now working at a new law firm, is working on starting discovery proceedings in neighboring King County, home of Seattle, the largest city in the state.

www.intelagencies.com

Henry Sapiecha

Video shows Virginia Police Caught PLANTING Drugs – 6/2014 CORRUPTION

DRUG DOG FOUND NOTHING IN CAR BUT VIRGINIA POLICE SAID THEY DID

[UPDATE 5.3.16: You cannot see the HILARIOUS annotations on mobile – so watch on desktop, for all the details & funny pop-ups. YES, the case was dropped once this video was shown to the Asst. D.A., There were NEVER any drugs to begin with & if they’re were I’m sure the K9’s nose would’ve been ALOT better than these 2 dirty cop’s noses. Also, I was instructed by my Atty. that with the Judges & Cops in that town; a Civil suit would’ve been a waste of time. I support cops as we need them/but loathe biased thugs hiding behind badges.] POLICE ARE SUPPOSED TO PROTECT & SERVE – NOT – PLANT EVIDENCE & POLICE PROFILE. This is personal to me/I’ll tell you why. In June I was illegally stopped while bird dogging RE properties with a white female Co-worker (Driver & owner) in a VERY rural part of VA. We were followed by an unmarked car so we voluntarily pulled over to allow him to pass. We were detained, searched for weapons & drugs and when that turned up nothing & instead of being allowed to drive away – 4 cruisers pulled up with a the K-9 dog and they proceeded to walk the dog inside & out. RESULT- That turned up nothing. So 2 cops ripped the car apart, looking for God knows what on the side of a country road for 1.5hrs and 5 other cops on standby in tactical gear. Picture 1 cop working the driver’s side & the other on the passenger side. After ripping through the car, the passenger side cop (Jr. officer) walks away and leaves his superior to finish. After finding NOTHING; the superior officer walks back to his squad car, the Jr. officer steps over to him, mumbles under his breath & the Superior officer bolts to the passenger side floorboard (my seat) and miraculously finds a morsel of marijuana. Something the dog & the other cop didn’t detect. He puts it in a tester, claims it to be Marijuana and that b/c it was found on MY side of the car—says ‘he’s giving me a citation for possession’. Why not arrest me –BECAUSE apparently the quantity was so small. WEIRD – So ask yourself, how is it a passenger with No marijuana (furthermore – 2 Non users), get pulled over for tinted windows (ONLY after I questioned the stop, the officer replied, give me your I.D. –UNFORTUNATELY for them I had NO warrants etc.), has a K-9 dog & 2 cops search the car with NO results UNTIL 1 officer does something blatantly illegal WEIRDER – So ask yourself, how is it the officer on the driver’s side of the car, magically finds marijuana a dog couldn’t discover? WEIRDEST – After paying $1500 to a lawyer, the VA Prosecutor dropped the charges knowing there was a video. BUT NOW, I’M SADDLED WITH EXPUNGING THIS RIDICULOUS CHARGE FROM MY RECORD—ANOTHER FEE, and get this – Since Virginia is a Commonwealth, they reserve the right to DENY my request! Ps: So I guess June 25th was my day to get a drug arrest record, BY ANY MEANS NECESSARY! Pss: The Jr. cop (whom I believe planted the so-called Marijuana) even asked to see the vid –I suppose he wanted to see IF he was caught on tape & YES, it’s all on video. HAHA, these guys really think they’re cowboys. PIECE de RESISITANCE – I RECORDED IT ON HD Iphone VIDEO – So after some serious thought, I decided to post the video of (2) Virginia cops planting evidence and make them celebrities.

www.crimefiles.net

www.intelagencies.com

Henry Sapiecha

Ford Is Making Hybrid Police Cruisers Now as well

Ford Motor Co., which sells more police vehicles in the U.S. than any other automaker, says it will offer a police pursuit version of the hybrid Fusion midsize sedan, in response to requests from cities nationwide.

The next time the cops chase you down for speeding, they could be driving a fuel-efficient gas-electric hybrid.

Ford Motor Co., which sells more police vehicles in the U.S. than any other automaker, says it will offer a police pursuit version of the hybrid Fusion midsize sedan, in response to requests from cities nationwide. The new car, with its 2-Liter four-cylinder engine and 1.4 kilowatt lithium-ion battery, is expected to get 38 miles per gallon of gas in combined city-highway driving. That’s 20 mpg more than Ford’s current police car, the Taurus police interceptor.

The hybrids won’t be as fast as the Taurus with a 3.7-Liter turbocharged V6, but Ford expects it to be quick enough to earn a pursuit rating when tested later this year by the Michigan State Police and Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, the first hybrid to earn that honor. To get a pursuit rating, cars have to perform well in acceleration, handling, braking, top speed and ergonomics and make the list of cars that the Michigan and Los Angeles agencies would buy.

When the throttle is held down for five seconds, the car will go into pursuit mode, using both the electric motor and the gas engine for maximum performance, Ford said. The company also says the car will be durable for tough police duties.

Police cars spend much of their days idling by the side of a road, and that’s where the hybrid has a true advantage, Ford said. The gas engine will shut off at idle with the battery handling the electrical load for flashers, radios and other items. It will restart to recharge the battery.

Ford said at $2.50 per gallon for gas, the hybrid would save a police department $3,877 per year in fuel costs per vehicle. The price of the hybrid, available in the summer of 2018, isn’t being released just yet.

Ford was to unveil the police car Monday with press conferences in New York and Los Angeles. One already has been outfitted to look like a Los Angeles police cruiser.

While big-city departments might be most interested in the fuel savings, the cars might also be appealing to small departments.

Thomas Korabik, chief of the 10-officer North Muskegon, Michigan, Police Department, said his city spends about $22,000 per year on gasoline for four cruisers and would be interested in cutting that in half.

But he wonders if the Fusion is big enough inside to carry computers, radios and other equipment. Many departments have switched to SUVs to handle the equipment, said Korabik, who also is president of the Michigan Association of Chiefs of Police.

“Anytime you can save money it is good,” he said. “I’d want to see the car first and see how it would hold up.”

Todd Soderquist, Ford’s chief engineer for the Fusion Police Responder, conceded the car is smaller than other cruisers on the outside. “Internally, you’ll be surprised at how comparable they are,” he said.

www.youbeautute.com

www.minimokes.com

www.crimefiles.net

Henry Sapiecha

San Antonio Police Department shooting of officer

On Sunday, November 20, 2016 a San Antonio Police Officer was murdered in front of the San Antonio Police Department’s Headquarters. The vehicle pictured was seen fleeing the scene. The suspect is described as a black male wearing a hoodie, baggie pants and possible facial hair.

Anyone with information is asked to contact CRIME STOPPERS at 224-STOP (224-7867).

CRIME STOPPERS will pay UP TO $10,000 for information which leads to the arrest of the suspect(s) responsible for the Capital Murder. As always you do not have to give your name when you call.

San Antonio Police Department's photo.
San Antonio Police Department's photo.San Antonio Police Department's photo.
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Streets were blocked off with police tape as officials investigated the slaying.

The shooting came less than five months after a gunman killed five officers in Dallas who were working a protest about the fatal police shootings of black skin men in Minnesota and Louisiana. It was the deadliest day for American law enforcement since September 11, 2001.

Ten days after the Dallas attack, a man wearing a ski mask and armed with two rifles and a pistol killed three officers near a gas station and convenience store in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. And earlier this month, two Des Moines, Iowa-area police officers were fatally shot in separate ambush-style attacks while sitting in their patrol cars.

Marconi’s Twitter account shows solidarity for the five slain Dallas officers by posting a photo of a “Pray for Dallas” shirt under a headline that read “San Antonio stands with Dallas.”

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www.crimefiles.net

Henry Sapiecha

36 Police Women From Across many nations/countries

Policing is one of the toughest jobs anywhere in the world with long hours, dangerous shifts and acting as the last line of protection between the general public and tyranny a lot of the time. Despite its perils, this job is held in high regard wherever you are in the world and is done by those willing to put themselves out there on the streets. However, even in this progressive day and age, there are very few women in Police forces (generally speaking) and so in this gallery, we celebrate those who have taken up the cause in whatever country they happen to be in.

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1. Austria

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Ranked as one of the best police forces in the world in one of the most peaceful countries in the world, the Austrian Police force, as it is now, was only formed in 2005 by merging the Gendarmerie and the Polizei into the federal Police Force. With about 12% women within the force, the Austrian police force has a relatively high female presence compared to many other countries and even has all female task forces in certain cities.

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2. Poland

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15% of the Polish Policja are female and in 2015, the country nominated its first female chief of Police. Women have been allowed into the Polish police force since 1925, a centralized force that operates within the 17 municipal regions of the country.

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3. Iraq

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In a country of strict religious grounding, women have not always been allowed into the police force and even when they were, only lower rank positions were available to them, however, since 2009, this has changed and the first class of women advanced through elite officer training. A highly dangerous job in a country where insurgents often target figures of authority, it also one of the most highly paid.

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4. Japan

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Only around 7.7% of Japan’s police force are women and most are mainly on low-profile assignments such as traffic control. Up until the early 1990’s female officers were not armed, had to wear skirts instead of slacks, and were assigned to ‘less hazardous’ duties like traffic control, juvenile counseling, and office duties but this has slowly begun to change over time. It was only in 2009 that female officers were put on full time ‘koban’ duties or beat patrol.

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5. Iran

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In 2003, some 400 women were employed by Iranian law enforcement as the first female officers since the 1979 revolution and although some still remain within the ranks of the police force, they do not currently recruit female officers due to strict religious concerns.

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6. Malaysia

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Women have been a feature in the Malaysian police force since 1948 when they were employed to stop food supplies falling into the hands of communist terrorists and were needed to help check women for smuggling operations. In 1955 the  first intake of seven women’s with the rank of Women Police Inspector was undertaken, when the Policewoman unit was officially organized, and a year later 56 female police constables were employed.

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7. The Netherlands

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Nochtli Peralta Alvarez is a former police officer in The Netherlands turned Instagram model and athlete who you can follow at instagram.com/nochtlii. Still working as on officer when she turned her hand to modeling, she would regularly get recognized on the street. The Dutch Police Corps is split into 25 regional units and employs around 50,000 people in the country with officers regularly on patrol.

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8. Singapore

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Increasing steadily over the past decade, around 18% of the Singapore police force is now female with an estimated 8,800 uniformed officers, an increase from 14% in 2003. The Women Special Constabulary was first formed in 1949 as a voluntary unit and in 1990, women were allowed part-time positions on traffic patrol and by 2007, a Special Women’s Task Team comprising 23 female officers was formed.

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9. Peru

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Women were first recruited into the Peruvian National Police in 1992 were roles mainly consisted of traffic duties. Now, approximately 11% of the police force are female and greater efforts to employ more throughout the country have been put in place in an attempt to stamp out corruption.

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10. Pakistan

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Women make up only a tiny fraction of Pakistan’s overall police force at around just 0.89%. However, concerted efforts have been made to encourage more women to sign up as it has been found that it can go to greater lengths in helping combatting extremism and terrorism within the country with the US embassy also offering training.

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11. Israel

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With a makeup of around 16% women, the Israeli police force is a centralized force operating out of Jerusalem without any municipal departments. With around 35,000 persons on the payroll. There are also 70,000 Civil Guard volunteers who contribute time to assist officers in their own communities.

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12. England

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The women’s police force in England was first founded in 1914 and staffed by volunteers but a year later, the first female officer with the full powers of arrest was in employ. Around 27.3% of the police force in England and Wales are female.

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13. Chile

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In 1962, the Chilean police force was amongst the first uniformed services within the country to allow women into its ranks. Known as the Carabineros de Chile, the force was formed in 1927 and has jurisdiction over the whole country.

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14. China

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Gaining much attention on social media, this police officer in China’s Anyue County is said to be so beautiful and charming that she can persuade anyone. Often tasked with tackling illegal street vendors, she apparently has such a charming demeanor and smile that vendors do her bidding without arrest or confrontation.

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15. Dominican Republic

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The Dominican Republic National Police and has a separate division of tourism police that can be seen in certain parts of the country. A general police training school was established in 1966 in Dominica and women have been encouraged to join the police force due to the amount of violence directed towards women in the country.

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16. India

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The first woman to joins the Indian Police Service was in 1972 and since then the number has increased dramatically to around 105,000 which is about 6% of the overall force. Now, with over 400 all women police stations in India, a 2004 study found that this led to a 23% increase in reporting of violence against women and children, as well as a higher conviction rate.

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17. Jordan 

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Jordan was the first Arab country to employ policewomen within its law enforcement in 1972 when they primarily used in the police laboratory, in budgeting and accounting, public relations, licensing, and in prison operations. However, operations and patrolling opportunities have become increased and far more frequent since then and they are now also visible on border security.

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18. Norway

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31% of Norway’s police force are women with the aim of making the number 40% very soon, it seems more than likely that half of the police force will be female in the next few years. Dating back to the 13th century, the Norwegian police force is relatively small with around 13,000 employees of which 8,000 are officers.

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19. South Korea 

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Headlines were set ablaze in South Korea and internationally when former Maxim model Kim Miso announced she was to join the Korean police force. Miss Miso was a Miss Maxim Korea 2014 contestant before joining the police force in the capital of South Korea, Seoul.

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20. Russia

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The Russian police force was thrust into the headlines when one of its cadets went on to become Miss St Petersburg. A young, Oxana Federova then went on to become  Miss Kalokagathia 1999, Miss Fitness, Miss Fortune, and Miss Russia 2001 but declined the opportunity to go to Miss Universe that year in order to carry on in her studies. In 2002, Oxana then went on to win Miss Universe and then went on to be named the most beautiful miss Universe ever in 2011. After her Miss Universe stint came to an end Oxana went on to get a Ph.D. and then returned to the police force going on to be being promoted to Captain in September 2002 and Major in 2005.

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21. Philippines

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Sofia Loren Deliu is a police officer in the Philippines and also a Miss Philippines Earth Contestant in 2015. A beauty pageant contestant before she joined the Philippines National Police force, in sich contests as Miss Teen Philippines 2006 and Miss Baguio 2008, Ms. Deliu continued to enter into pageants after her successful enrollment into the police force and even received support from the country’s leaders. She is now part of the security detail for President Rodrigo Duerte.

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22. Yemen

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The first corps of policewomen in Yemen was employed in 1999 and today, some 2,000 women serve in Yemen’s internal security forces. However, numbers are steadily decreasing as the profession is widely seen as male orientated and parents are reluctant to let their children sign up.

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23. Sweden

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Women make up 40% of the overall staff of the Swedish police force and 28% of the officers, and the number is ever increasing with the first group of female police officers being employed in 1908. It wasn’t however, until 1957 that the possibility of becoming a Police Constable on patrol duty was made available to women.

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24. Taiwan

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Earlier this year, a young recruit into the Taiwan police force took the internet by storm for her good looks as pictures of her in her uniform were shared on social media. 23-year-old Huang Yichun graduated from the Taipei Police Academy in 2013 and now works for the Governmental Police Squad of New Taipei City in Taiwan.

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25. U.S.A

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The was the first American-born female police officer in the United States, was hired in 1910 but it took another six decades for numbers to really increase as, by 1970, only two percent of all police were women. The 90s saw this number begin to take off and in 1991, 9% of the force was female.

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26. Nicaragua

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Women make up almost 30 % of Nicaragua’s police force and the chief of police is also a woman. One of the highest ratios of policewomen in the force in the world, It began with the Sandinista revolution of 1979 which saw many women become guerrillas and fight on equal footing with men. When the Sandinista’s won the country, the perception of women in roles of authority had changed and more and more moved into law enforcement.

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27. North Korea

North-Korea-police-women images www.policesearch.net

Little is known about the set-up of most of North Korea’s security forces but women are predominantly seen in policing as traffic cops with one being awarded the country’s top honor in 2013 for an unspecified “heroic feat” leading some to speculate that she may have rescued the country’s supreme leader from a traffic accident.

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28. Lithuania

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With around 30.5% women in the police staff of Lithuania, it has a very high number of female staff members compared to other forces around the world.

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29. Indonesia

Indonesia-police-women images www.policesearch.net

Made up of 400,000 police officers, there are currently 13,000 female police officers in the Indonesian National Police, which is a branch of the country’s armed forces. In 2014 the country came under fire by the human rights watch for subjecting female applicants to the role to a virginity test. Despite complaints that this is invasive and derogatory, the practice is still believed to be in place.

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30. Italy

italy-police-women images www.policesearch.net

There are three kinds of police in Italy, the Polizia, who deal with local policing issues, the Vigili, who are town police dealing mostly with road traffic infringements, and the Carabinieri who are the military police. Until 1999 it was not possible for women to join the latter of these police forces and in 2007, the Polizia made headlines when it issued ‘official’ stilettos to its 14,750 female officers to give their uniform a “younger, sexier look.”

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31. Germany

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A senior police commissioner in Germany was bombarded by messages from adoring fans when her Instagram photos went viral. Adrienne Koleszar  competed in the bikini class of the Bodybuilding-WM in 2015 and has gained a lot of recognition online with some fans even going so far as to be begged to be arrested.

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32. Canada

canadian-police-women images www.policesearch.net

Rose Fortune was Canada’s first female police officer in the 19th century but it wasn’t until 1912 that women were ‘officially’ allowed to become police officers. Women officers account for 20.8% of the Canadian officers in the police force.

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33. Iceland

Iceland-police-women images www.policesearch.net

There is no military or armed forces in Iceland so all law enforcement falls under the jurisdiction of the Icelandic Police force except for that of Icelandic waters which are patrolled by the Icelandic coastguard. There are around 653 police officers in total in the country, 95 of which are women. With the first and only ever shooting death in the country from a police operation happening in 2013, Iceland consistently ranks as the safest police force.

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34. Turkey

turkish-police-women images www.policesearch.net

There is an ongoing gender equality struggle in Turkey and, in a largely Islamic country, Women were often kept out of the police force by not being able to wear headscarves if serving, however, this ban was lifted in September 2016.

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35. France

french-police-women images www.policesearch.net

There are two police forces in France called “Police Nationale” and “Gendarmerie Nationale” with the Gendarmerie being a military branch. Women were initially hindered from entering the police force due to a French law from 1892 banned women from working at night. The ban wasn’t abolished by the French parliament until 2000

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36. Australia

australian-police-women images www.policesearch.net

The police force in Australia is composed of different uniformed officers over a number of states.These police women pictured herein are from the South Australian police force whose images would represent more or less the type of women in the Australian police force

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Henry Sapiecha

 

 

POLICE & LAWS RE PARENTING WITH MOBILE PHONES IN DOUBT

Ronald Jackson has been found not guilty of property theft after confiscating a phone from his teenage daughter and refusing to return it image www.policesearch.net

Ronald Jackson has been found not guilty of property theft after confiscating a phone from his teenage daughter and refusing to return it. Photo: CBS-DFW

She was 12 and, her mother said, she was not fitting in with her father’s new family. She grabbed her camouflage-patterned iPhone 4s and shot a text to a friend – roughly: “I don’t like his ratchet girlfriend or her kids.”

It was 2013. That word – “ratchet” –  was running through rap songs and teens’ text messages, thought to mean a low-class and clueless diva. When Ronald Jackson saw it, he took away his daughter’s cellphone.

“I was being a parent,” Mr Jackson told broadcaster CBS-DFW. “A child does something wrong, you teach them what’s right.”

Mr Jackson, 36, from Dallas, Texas, was ultimately arrested and charged with property theft, because he had taken his daughter’s iPhone and refused to give it back.
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Following a long legal battle, a Dallas County Criminal Court judge last week ruled the state did not have enough evidence to continue the case and ordered a jury to find him not guilty.

It was Mr Jackson’s visitation time that Saturday in late September 2013. He and his former partner, Michelle Steppe, were no longer a couple but shared custody of their daughter. Both had started new families.
The mobile phone at the centre of the court case.

The mobile phone at the centre of the court case. Photo: CBS-DFW

Ms Steppe, 40, and her fiance bought the phone for her daughter, but it was on Mr Jackson’s mobile data plan.

After Mr Jackson confiscated the mobile phone, the girl went to a friend’s house and called her mother. Police were sent to Mr Jackson’s home and tried to get it back, according to television station WFAA.

“At that point,” Mr Jackson said, “I decided the police don’t interfere with my ability to parent my daughter.”

Ms Steppe said she respected Mr Jackson’s parenting moment, but he should have given her the phone.

“I stand behind him taking the phone for punishment; I don’t stand behind him not returning the phone to me when the visit was over,” Ms Steppe told The Post. “Parents have the right to discipline their kids. I’ve taken away phone privileges.

“It had to do with giving back property that did not belong to him.”

When Ms Steppe collected her daughter, she demanded the phone, according to court documents. When Mr Jackson declined to hand it over, Ms Steppe sent him a demand letter.

Months went by. Then, Mr Jackson was mailed a citation for petty theft, a Class C misdemeanour.

Court documents show the city attorney’s office offered him a plea deal in exchange for the phone, according to WFAA. But Mr Jackson got a lawyer and opted for a trial in municipal court, according to the news station.

Court documents state the case was first filed with the city court, but that “due to the lack of co-operation by the defendant”, the prosecutor in the case asked that police file it as a harsher Class B misdemeanour in a county court.

Late one night in April 2015, Mr Jackson was woken by police, placed in handcuffs and taken to jail.

“Why would you arrest someone for something like that?” he told CBS-DFW. “Don’t you have better things to do as a police officer? Aren’t there bigger crimes in the city that you need to take care of?”

Grand Prairie police spokesman Lyle Gensler said police tried to get Mr Jackson to return his daughter’s phone.

“We do not like these kinds of instances to go into the criminal justice system,” he told WFAA. “We prefer to keep it out and the phone be returned and let the parents, the two adults, let them work it out among themselves.”

One concern Mr Jackson had was that Ms Steppe’s fiance is an officer on the police force.

“In the entire investigation, that never came into play,” Mr Gensler said.

Ms Steppe said the relationship between her daughter, now 15, and the girl’s father was ruined.

“She wrote him a letter and knocked on the door and handed it to him,” Ms Steppe said.

“In the letter, she listed the Webster’s definition of a father and said, ‘You have never been any of these things to me.’ She asked him to relinquish his parental rights so she could be adopted by her stepdad.”

Ms Steppe said Mr Jackson had asked to relinquish his rights and that case was pending.

During Mr Jackson’s two-day trial last week, his daughter took the stand.

“She’s heartbroken, she’s devastated,” Ms Steppe said.

“Don’t smear her. Don’t make her look like a sexting teen, an out-of-control teen. Don’t mess with her life.”

Mr Jackson’s attorney, Cameron Gray, said he was planning to file a federal civil rights claim against the Grand Prairie Police Department and the city attorney’s office over the way Mr Jackson was treated.

Washington Post

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Henry Sapiecha

Woman beats drink-driving charges due to the brewery in her belly

making an alcoholic drink image www.policesearch.net

Some human bodies produce alcohol of their own accord.

www.foodpassions.net

Some people have six-packs and others have kegs, but it appears an unusual few actually have an entire brewery operating in their bellies.

That fact has emerged in the United States, where a woman last month successfully beat a drink-driving charge by arguing that she suffered from “auto-brewery syndrome”.

The woman was arrested in Hamburg, New York state, in October 2014 after she was seen driving with a flat tyre and “weaving all over” the road, according to local police.

brewery & bottles of beer assembly line image www.policesearch.net

Abnormally high levels yeast can turn a stomach into a brewery. Photo: Jasper Juinen

The 35-year-old schoolteacher was breathalysed and returned a blood alcohol reading of 0.33 – more than four times the state’s legal limit of 0.08

The woman, who has not been named, claimed to have only consumed four drinks over the six hours leading up to the test, according to CNN, which with her size and weight should have resulted in an alcohol reading of between 0.01 and 0.05.

Seeking an explanation, her defence lawyer Joseph Marusak turned to the internet and soon found one: auto-brewery syndrome.

The extremely rare condition, also known as gut fermentation syndrome, can occur when abnormally high levels of gastrointestinal yeast turns food carbohydrates into ethanol.

“She can register a blood alcohol content that would have you or I falling down drunk, but she can function,” Mr Marusak told local newspaper The Buffalo News.

He said his client had so much yeast in her gut that it functioned like a “brewery”, resulting in “one of the strangest cases I’ve ever been involved with in more than 30 years as a lawyer.”

Mr Marusak hired two nurses and a professional trained in using breathalysers to monitor his client’s blood alcohol levels on a day when she had not been drinking at all.

Lo and behold, she returned levels similar to those on the day she was arrested.

Mr Marusak presented those and other medical tests in court, which was persuaded by the evidence and dismissed the drink-driving charges on December 9.

Prosecutors, however, are seeking to have the charges reinstated.

In the meantime the woman has successfully treated her condition by removing yeast from her diet and taking anti-fungal medication.

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Henry Sapiecha

Victims of Oklahoma ex-police officer said they were forced into sex through fear

Oklahoma police officer found guilty of rape

Former police officer Daniel Holtzclaw cries after being found guilty of sexually assaulting 13 women, as lawyers representing the victims say they’re not pleased about the several counts that weren’t received.

Oklahoma City: Two of the women sexually assaulted by a former Oklahoma City policeman said on Friday they feared for their lives after the officer threatened them with arrest and violence if they did not perform sexual acts on him.

Daniel Holtzclaw, 29, was found guilty by a jury on Thursday of 18 of the 36 counts against him that included rape and sexual assaults of 13 women.

He broke down in tears as the verdict was read and said, “I didn’t do it,” as he was led out of the courtroom in handcuffs. He faces life in prison.

Jannie Ligons, left, one of the victims of sexual assault by former Oklahoma City police officer Daniel Holtzclaw, smiles as attorney Benjamin Crump holds up her arm image www.crimefiles.net

Jannie Ligons, left, one of the victims of sexual assault by former Oklahoma City police officer Daniel Holtzclaw, smiles as attorney Benjamin Crump holds up her arm during a news conference. Photo: AP

“All I could think of was he was going to shoot me, he was going to kill me,” Janie Liggons, one of the victims, told a news conference. She was pulled over by Holtzclaw and threatened.

“I kept pleading, ‘Don’t make me do this, sir. Are you going to shoot me?’ I was so afraid, so helpless.”

Five of the victims plan to sue the city over the incidents, an attorney told the news conference on Friday.

Daniel Holtzclaw, right, was convicted of raping eight women on his police beat image www.crimefiles.net

Daniel Holtzclaw, right, was convicted of raping eight women on his police beat in a minority, low-income neighbourhood. Photo: AP

Liggons was the first to report Holtzclaw to authorities, who then launched an investigation and found a dozen other women, all African-American, who said they were sexually assaulted by Holtzclaw, who is mixed race Asian and white.

Holtzclaw was fired by the police over the accusations in January 2015 after approximately three years on the job.

Liggons said she was different from other victims in that she did not have any outstanding warrants or convictions against her. Prosecutors said Holtzclaw preyed on women who had trouble with the law, thinking that their word would not stand up against his, adding he became more brazen with each attack.

Ex-police officer Daniel Holtzclaw puts his head on the table and cries as the guilty verdicts are read in his trial in Oklahoma City image www.crimefiles.net

Ex-police officer Daniel Holtzclaw puts his head on the table and cries as the guilty verdicts are read in his trial in Oklahoma City. Photo: AP

“He just picked the wrong lady to stop that night,” she said.

Another victim, Shardarion Hill, said she went into survival mode with Holtzclaw and was forced into doing what the man with the badge and gun wanted.

The defence attacked the credibility of the women who testified against Holtzclaw, saying they were dishonest.

Supporters of the victims of former Oklahoma City police officer Daniel Holtzclaw pray after the verdicts were read for the charges against him at the Oklahoma County Courthouse image www.crimefiles.net

Supporters of the victims of former Oklahoma City police officer Daniel Holtzclaw pray after the verdicts were read for the charges against him at the Oklahoma County Courthouse. Photo: AP

“Society tends not to believe black women or value them as other women are,” said Artist for Justice founder Grace Franklin, who stood in support of the 13 women.

The Oklahoma City Police Department backed the detectives who investigated Holtzclaw and the jury that convicted him.

“We are satisfied with the jury’s decision and firmly believe justice was served,” it said in a statement.

Holtzclaw faces a sentencing hearing on January 21.

Reuters

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Henry Sapiecha

 

SOME POLICE SHOOTOUT & CAR CHASE [11] VIDEOS [WARNING GRAPHIC CONTENT]

1…World’s Scariest Police Shootouts Crime Documentary Videos

2…Published on Feb 27, 2014

WARNING: gun violence. World’s Scariest Police Shootouts – Crime Documentary

Most daring, dangerous, wildest, and shocking videos of police and criminal shootouts ever caught on tape.

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3…Police helicopter video shows dramatic highway shoot-out

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4…Drug addict shot dead in police hostage situation in China

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5…Published on Jan 14, 2014

DENVER — Raw video from the Denver officer-involved shooting. In the video, an unidentified man takes a woman and uses her as a shield while police yell for the man to surrender.
WARNING: This video may not be appropriate for some viewers.
As the man tries to take the woman back inside the store, an officer opens fire hitting the man. He falls to the ground, the hostage runs away and officers swarm the area.
The man was taken to Denver Health Medical Center for treatment and was listed in critical condition Monday afternoon.
(DenverChannel) DENVER – Denver Police have identified the suspect who allegedly took hostages inside a 7-Eleven Monday. Police said 34-year-old Blas Leroux was shot in the shoulder as he tried to use one of the hostages as a human shield.
The standoff began at 8:30 a.m., after witnesses saw the suspect running from police.
“He dropped his coat,” said Dino Gallegos, who was exiting the store as Leroux ran in, “and the officer picked it up. The suspect ran around the corner and into 7-Eleven.”
Police Chief Robert White said negotiators tried for nearly an hour to get him to surrender. He refused and instead used one of the three hostages as a shield in an attempt to escape.
“The officers demanded that he let her go, at which time he attempted to pull her back into the store,” White said. “So out of fear for her safety, one of the officers fired a shot striking the individual.”
Leroux was taken to a nearby hospital with a gunshot wound to the shoulder. The hostage was not injured.
A Colorado Bureau of Investigation report shows Leroux has used several other names. He has a lengthy criminal record including convictions for trespass, motor vehicle theft, assault, burglary, child abuse, escape and harassment.

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6…SWAT TEAM SHOOTOUT

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7…Wild Police Chase – South Los Angeles, CA – April 30, 2013

Published on Apr 30, 2013

Police chase a stolen van in South Los Angeles, California. The suspect crashes into a multiple cars during the dangerous pursuit including a LAPD patrol car. The suspect jumps out and runs after spike strips disable the white cargo van.

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8…Officers Shoot & Kill Suspect on LIVE TV! Phoenix Car Chase (23 October 2014) KTVK

Published on Oct 26, 2014

**Exclusive YouTube/wwwy2000 video** | Associated Press –
Police in a Phoenix suburb fatally shot a machete-wielding man Thursday after he rammed a patrol car in a stolen truck, injuring an officer.

Avondale police said the man was shot after he refused to drop the machete and a pocket knife.

Authorities identified the man as Jeremy Bustos, 43, and said he was rushed to a hospital along with an Avondale police officer who was injured in the collision.

The officer’s name hasn’t been released, but Avondale police Sgt. Brandon Busse said the officer was in stable condition and improving at a hospital with non-life threatening injuries.

Witnesses said the suspect was shot at least twice and helicopter news video showed him falling to the ground before he was taken to a trauma center.

Busse said the spree started when a man assaulted a city maintenance worker on the side of a roadway and stole his city truck about 9 a.m. The man took the truck on a joyride as police pursued before officers got a helicopter to track the stolen vehicle and backed off, authorities said.

Police began a pursuit and used tire-puncturing devices and the chase ended with the truck ramming the police car.

Officers confronted the suspect, who refused their commands and advanced toward them with a machete and pocket knife and was shot, according to Busse.

Avondale Fire Department crews extricated the police officer from his vehicle and he was airlifted to a Phoenix hospital.

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9…PCH DUI Chase Suspect Dances, Confronts Officers

Published on Apr 16, 2013

More Police Chase Videos from ABC7: http://bit.ly/15ghJHA

A DUI suspect leads CHP officers on a chase on the Pacific Coast Highway on April 16, 2013, before resisting arrest. As the chase ends on the PCH, the suspect gets out of his vehicle, dances and then walks right up to armed officers, forcing police to take action in a nail-biting scene that ends in his arrest.

10…BEST OF Police and FAIL

Published on Dec 16, 2014

Compilation : video BEST OF the best Police and epic FAIL / crash.

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11…Best COP CHASES Compilation – Police VS Street Racers – CHASES GONE WILD

Published on Mar 9, 2015

Best COP CHASES Compilation – Police VS Street Racers – CHASES GONE WILD Enjoy! 🙂
Moto Chases – Cops VS Racers Best Compilation!

Henry Sapiecha

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